What is Sickle Cell Anemia? How is it treated?

What is sickle cell anemia? How is it treated?
What is sickle cell anemia? How is it treated?

Sickle cell anemia treatment is required in such patients who experience from the severe form of this condition. In normal condition hemoglobin present in our blood is responsible for carrying oxygen and further distribution of it in the whole body. However, in sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is defectively obtaining an s-shaped and lacking oxygen carrying capacity. Which creates a situation of deoxygenation in the body and might lead to severe or fatal conditions.

 

How can Sickle Cell Anemia be diagnosed?

A blood test can easily help in the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. A screening for hemoglobin S is done of the collected blood sample. If the test comes out to be negative then there is no sickle cell gene present and if it is positive then the gene is present. Further additional tests for evaluation of the severity of the condition is done like to check for a low blood cell count or anemic condition etc. These tests help in preparing and preventing complications which can later turn out to be fatal. A proper diagnosis at the early stages can only help in getting the best sickle cell anemia treatment.

Sickle cell genes can also be tested during pregnancy by sampling amniotic fluid. Further, a genetic counselor can also be recommended to understand the better chances and risks for your baby.

 

Is there any treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia?

Sickle cell anemia treatment has options like blood transfusions which can increase red blood cell count for time being to relieve anemia symptoms. But transfusion causes iron overload and build high risks of stroke as well.

A bone marrow transplant is another effective sickle cell anemia treatment option which is readily used these days. It involves the replacement of defective or damaged bone marrow with the new healthy bone marrow obtained from the patient or a donor. A completely matching donor is hard to find but if found can make things easier and reduces complication chances as well for the patient. The complications are less in people of 16 years of age and younger after that serious risks like death is involved in most of the cases.

Sickle cell anemia treatment is very important since it helps to prevent any crisis and complications. Especially babies with 2 years of age and younger must be taken to the doctor frequently for a routine checkup during sickle cell anemia treatment, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Sickle cell anemia treatment options include medications to reduce pain, and blood transfusions, and mainly a bone marrow transplant to prevent further complications.  

 

Some of the medications which are used in sickle cell anemia treatment include:

•   Pain-Relievers: These prescribed medications helps in relieving pain during sickle cell crisis. Your doctor can suggest a medicine suitable as per your level of pain.

•   Antibiotics: Children of 2 months of age are put on antibiotics like penicillin until they reach 5 years of age. This helps during sickle cell anemia treatment to prevent life-threatening infections like pneumonia for a sickle cell patient.

•   Hydroxyurea: This medicine if taken daily reduces the chances of crisis as well as blood transfusions and frequent hospitalizations. It triggers the production of fetal hemoglobin which is found in newborns and prevents sickle cell formation.

 

Related FAQs:

1) Q: Can sickle cell make life more difficult?

A: Yes, it does make life more on the edge of difficult mainly for a child who needs to understand several things. It can cause stunted growth with delayed sexual maturity. Avoiding things which can cause the crisis is another hurdle, being more careful with medicine, strenuous exercise, and high altitude is a must for sickle cell anemia people. Seeking for sickle cell anemia treatment is another must for such patients with this disease.

 

2) Q: Can sickle cell anemia lead to a fatal condition of organ failure in severe cases?

A: Yes, due to chronic deprivation of oxygen blood might cause damage to the nerves and organs like kidneys, spleen, and liver. Hence sickle cell anemia treatment must be looked for.

 

3) Q: Which is the best sickle cell anemia treatment option?

A: Stem cell transplant or the bone marrow transplant is the best way to for sickle cell anemia treatment. It helps in avoiding crises, preventing complications, and relieving symptoms.

BMT in India- What difficulties patients have to face during treatment?

BMT in India- what difficulties patients have to face during treatment?
BMT in India- what difficulties patients have to face during treatment?

BMT in India is the procedure done in high numbers. This involves Indian as well as many foreign patients. In this procedure, replacement of the damaged bone marrow is done with such bone marrow stem cells which are healthy and efficient. A person must undergo a BMT in India if he or she is unable to make sufficient blood count and is looking for economic treatment or in order to combat any underlying disease of aplastic anemia, leukemia etc. The procedure of BMT in India is highly successful and is performed by skilled professionals in every hospital.

 

Why BMT is becoming an urgent need for the patient?

The survival of the person depends upon his body’s capability of fighting against infections and diseases. Whereas a damaged or malfunctioned bone marrow makes a person all these abilities to combat against diseases.  So it becomes mandatory for the person to seek treatment and get bone marrow transplant in such cases.

 

What you must look for in a matching donor during BMT in India?

Finding a donor during BMT in India can be a hurdle because donor registration in NOTTO or National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization is not followed here. Moreover, India has very few donor registers and amongst all the reliable and oldest one is MDRI or Marrow Donor Registry India.

There are few tips to follow while finding a matching donor during BMT in India:

•   The age group of the donor must be between 18 to 50 with good health. The younger the donor the better it will be for the patient.

•   A donor must be free from any diseases like of cancer, cardiac, liver, kidney, diabetes, and even obesity etc.

•   A donor must also be free from any kind of high-risk viral diseases like AIDS etc.

India still requires a lot of awareness for the need of donor registration so as to motivate people to register once they turn eligible. Once this is done more and more lives with ease could be saved.

 

What can make the BMT in India more difficult for the patients?

BMT in India appears partially difficult for some patients and their families. Especially the foreign patients and such patients who are looking for the best economic treatment options. Insurance covers also do not provide a full cover on diseases which require BMT. India is already offering economic services for its patients in comparison to global treatment prices.

It involves a huge investment though but still, there are endless hospitals in India who are competing to strive and provide the best available treatment globally, within the country itself. BMT in India also involves those risks of transplant like in any other country. These complications can be mild to severe and sometimes life-threatening as well.

It includes:

•   Infections, organ injury, transplant rejections.

•   Allogenic transplants also include graft-versus-host disease in some cases which affects the skin, liver, eyes, lungs, and digestive system.

•   New cancer or even death in rare cases etc.

 

Related FAQs:

Q: Is it important for the patient and the donor to have the same blood group?

A: No blood group matching is not mandatory. Instead, HLA typing in DNA must match 6 to 10 major markers for an ideal match.

 

Q: Procedure of BMT in India or bone marrow donation requires any removal of the bone part?

A: No, BMT in India does not require any bone piece removal at any stage of the procedure. Only stem cells are obtained either from a blood sample or fluid present inside the bone.

 

Q: Any surgery is involved in bone marrow donation process?

A: In most of the cases of BMT in India, stem cells are obtained via peripheral blood stem cell donation without any surgery. Although, a very less fraction of nearly 5 to 9 percent of cases might involve a surgical procedure to obtain stem cells.

BMT in India- How can I get low-cost treatment

BMT in India- How can I get low-cost treatment
BMT in India- How can I get low-cost treatment

Looking for affordable BMT in India is really easy. India itself offers a wide range of quality and cost-effective treatment and procedure options. Further, reaching out the best economic hospital in India can be tricky but not difficult. There are several hospitals offering packages at economic prices for Bone Marrow Transplant in India. You may find several medical tourism companies to help you reach out the best hospital as per your need. 

Cost-efficacy of Bone Marrow Transplant in India?

There are many cost-effective treatment options available for Bone Marrow Transplant in India. It involves the complete replacement of damaged hematopoietic stem cell and this procedure is also known as HSCT. The donor’s hematopoietic stem cells regenerate the patient’s hematopoietic system over the time and makeup WBC, RBC, and platelets and the blood count reach the desired values. The most cost-effective But in India can be autologous stem cell transplant in which patient’s own healthy stem cells are re-infused during treatment. But every individual cannot be eligible for the same. Since this requires healthy stem cells and not the damaged ones to re-boost the system again. This procedure minimizes the time, cost and effort in finding a matching donor. Other than this peripheral blood and cord blood transplant are the available options.

 

Why is the cost of Bone Marrow Transplant in India more in few hospitals and low in others?

The high-cost variation of Bone Marrow Transplant in India among several hospitals is often linked with several factors. Some of these include poor insurance cover availability; different staging or diagnosis equipment and procedure costs because of the difference in facilities provided by each hospital etc. The costing of Bone Marrow Transplant in India is comparatively cheaper than offered by many other developed countries. Although, during BMT in India variation of cost can be felt even in HLAs compatibility testing of related or unrelated donors. So small-small variations in cost add up and make a huge difference. The best way is to opt for the hospital as per budget and facilities required this minimizes the hassle of dealing with finances at each step during the Bone Marrow Transplant procedure.

The cost of BMT in India, offered by each hospital is also impacted by the team of specialized professionals and high-tech equipment and other amenities the hospital possess.

 

How can the cost of Bone Marrow Transplant in India be further minimized?

By taking proper measures and precautions to avoid complications during and after Bone Marrow Transplant in India helps in minimizing the extra cost which adds up to the expenses. The occasional cases of stem cell rejection causing a complete failure of the procedure. It leads to an extension of hospitalization under aseptic conditions and further increases the cost of Bone Marrow Transplant as well.

 

Related FAQs:

1) Q: Is it really dangerous to undergo Bone Marrow Transplant procedure?

A: BMT procedure is completely safe although like any other procedure it does have some risks of developing complications. Stem cell engrafting failure in allogeneic transplant is the main risk though, it does not happen in all cases.

 

2) Q: Which Bone Marrow Transplant is best for my case? How do I confirm it?

A: Your treating physician is the best person to guide you on this after the complete analysis of your condition. You may also choose to discuss and get the second opinion about your diagnosis and treatment from another expert as well. Usually, a coordinator in every hospital is given the duty of clearing all your doubts.

 

3) Q: After how long I can get back to work after Bone Marrow Transplant in India?

A: Because of decreased immunity and increased risk of infections it is suggested always to avoid work and crowded places. Usually, a resting period of 3-6 months after an autologous transplant and 6-12 months after allogeneic transplant is recommended for complete recovery. During this time the body regains lost strength and immunity. Further, the resting period might vary depending upon complications if any or your health condition. You must always seek your treating physician’s advice before returning to work.

Sickle Cell Anemia in Africa Population

Sickle Cell Anemia in Africa Population
Sickle Cell Anemia in Africa Population

Anemia is a common disease in many parts of the world. For a common man, it is mainly characterized by a deficiency of iron in the body. But medically, it is the deficiency of iron-carrying protein – hemoglobin which is responsible for transportation of oxygen and nutrients in the body. All this takes place in the RED BLOOD CELLS or RBCs.

Sickle Cell Anaemia-A Genetic disorder:

Sickle Cell Anaemia is different. It is a genetic disorder which results in RBCs to become misshapen and break down. Because of which the transportation of oxygen and nutrients is hampered. And patient suffers from the symptoms of anemia such as weakness, pallor, pain in joints etc.

Sickle cell anemia can make life more difficult, particularly for a child, who will need to deal with delayed sexual maturity and stunted growth. The patient will need to avoid things that can cause a crisis, such as certain medication that restricts blood vessels, high altitudes, and strenuous exercise.

About 80% of sickle cell disease cases are believed to occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sickle cell is found more frequently in persons of Middle Eastern, Indian, Mediterranean and African heritage because those geographic regions are most prone to malaria. The gene variant for sickle cell disease is related to malaria, not skin color. In the African population, the presence of sickle cell gene is an example of natural selection. Those people are specifically prone to a malarial parasite which feeds upon the normal spherical RBC. But in people with sickle cell anemia, the sickle-shaped RBC is not the best host for the parasite. The sickle cell and the parasite are filtered out by the spleen and destroyed, lessening the impact of the parasitic infection. Therefore, people with sickle cell trait never have a high infection load that results in malaria. Thus, they are comparatively immune to malaria which is one of the biggest killers in many African countries.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Stem Cell Transplant and the Cost of Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant and the Cost of Therapy
Stem Cell Transplant and the Cost of Therapy

Stem cell transplant is a mode of treatment which replaces the faulty blood-cell forming marrow with healthier marrow cells. The faulty bone marrow cells may be because of any injuries, infections, diseases and disabilities and even chemotherapy. Stem cell transplant is also called a bone marrow transplant.

Where is bone marrow transplant needed?

  • Cancers of the blood cells and bone marrow.
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Hemoglobin abnormalities like thalassemia
  • Red Blood cell disorders like sickle cell anemia
  • White blood cell disorders like congenital neutropenia
  • Chemotherapy

Stem cell transplant is one of the recent modes for treatment for many marrow cell disorders. The cost of treatment in India is one of the lowest compared to most other countries. The quality of the treatment is also top-notch and is provided by professional experts.

The starting price of stem cell therapy in India is around $9,000-$10,000.

Stem cell treatments in other countries:

Stem cell therapy in Nigeria is also placing their feet into the research. Studies are being performed for stem cell therapy in these regions and patients are receiving treatment. But this is still at a smaller scale and only a few hospitals with multi-specialties are able to provide this.
Stem cell therapy in Ghana is one of its recent advancements. The first stem cell therapy procedure was performed in the Greater Accra Regional Hospital. This was done for the treatment of sickle cell anemia. The entire procedure costs about $15,000 to $20,000. The surgical team and doctors did share their problem of lack of adequate staff and facilities.

Multiple myelomas is a rare type of blood cancer which is seen more commonly in African-Americans. Despite this, there are very few resources in countries like Kenya. The facilities to quickly diagnose this condition seems to be lacking. The expertise that is needed for long-term treatments like stem cell therapy is also not easily available. Apart from that, the cost of medications, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy is also too high for a common man.

Myelodysplastic syndrome is a group of diseases which are caused due to defective bone marrow. This condition is seen more commonly in African countries like Nigeria. Despite this, the availability of treatment is very scarce. Many individuals are seen making international trips to countries like India for an affordable treatment which come with state-of-the-art technology. The cost of treatment in Nigeria is also pretty high which begins at the range of $20,000 to $50,000.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia is another type of white blood cell cancer. Leukemia is one of the leading causes of death in many countries, especially the United Arab Emirates. The treatment options are available at too high a price for the common working-class man to afford. The initial cost of treatment begins at $20,000 and sometimes goes up to $50,000 also which makes it unaffordable for many.
While looking at the price-points and the quality of treatment, one can easily deduce that the advanced treatments like stem cell therapy is not as easily available in many countries. When available, they are more expensive than what can be afforded. There is also a steady increase in the number of people visiting India for such treatments.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

 

Related FAQs:

1) Q: What accounts for the most affordable stem cell cost?

A: Adipose-derived stem cells are the most affordable ones. Although the stem cell therapy in itself is expensive and harvesting stem cell from adipose fat is comparatively cheaper than harvesting from bone marrow or teeth. So, in terms of stem cell cost efficacy, this one is the most preferred one and is really getting common day by day because of its cost-effectiveness.

 

2) Q: Why do stem cell cost vary from case to case?

A: A patient with complex diseases bears a higher cost of stem cell therapy. Since it requires a systemic approach to deal with all the conditions which arise before during and even after the stem cell therapy.  The stem cell cost might even double because of involvement of treatment for diseases like multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis etc.

3) Q: Which complications can further increase stem cell cost?

A: Any allergic reaction, rejection of transplant, graft-versus-host disease etc can all add up to stem cell cost individually or all together. As per the case different conditions might appear as complications post procedure and its treatment will add up the cost in whole. As a precaution, you must share your complete medical history along with ongoing medications to avoid any unwanted reaction due to that.

Aplastic Anemia in Kenya

Aplastic Anemia in Kenya
Aplastic Anemia in Kenya

What is Aplastic Anemia:

Aplastic Anemia is a condition in which there is a shortage of red blood cells due to suppression of the bone marrow. This condition frequently occurs due to chemical agents, infections or even due to nutritional deficient.

The patient may complain of symptoms like increased blood clots called petechiae, hemorrhages and fatigue. They are more prone to infections and have a weaker immune response. After diagnosis, the patient is advised to take treatment for the condition.

There are many treatment options for aplastic anemia. The patient can choose to receive medical therapy which involves antifibrinolytic agents and antibiotics to regulate the symptoms or can choose Stem Cell therapy.

Aplastic Anemia is prevalent in Kenya. Despite this, there are not enough treatment centers which are capable of providing the most advanced treatment procedures. Stem cell therapy is not available as easily. Even if it is present, it is an expensive procedure which is not affordable by the general populace.

The cost of stem cell treatment is approximately $20,000 to $50,000. This is exclusive of the post-treatment medications. Stem cell therapy requires constant usage of immunosuppressive therapy. Due to these complications, effective treatments like stem cell therapy fail to be a viable option for the people.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML) in Pakistan

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML) in Pakistan
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML) in Pakistan

What is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia:

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is a type of cancer of the white blood cells which leads to rapid multiplication and formation of abnormal dysfunctional units. The condition causes various symptoms like sudden weight loss, night sweats, and fever. Chronic myeloid leukemia occurs due to a genetic mix-up of a chromosome called the “Philadelphia chromosome

The occurrence of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is comparatively less and the manifestation of the disease takes time. The condition is more common in adults than in children. The treatment for CML in Pakistan is not as progressive as the other states. While most of the hospitals offer Chemotherapy for CML, there are hospitals that perform stem cell transplantation.

Stem cell transplantation is one of the advanced treatment techniques which have the potential to heal the patient more thoroughly than chemotherapy. This treatment is quite expensive in Pakistan. Moreover, there are not enough specialists in Pakistan to provide this option for patients.

Bone marrow or stem cell transplantation requires a donor match. Only if the bone marrow of the donor matches with the patient can the transplant be made?

The cost of stem cell therapy in Pakistan is close to the range of $20,000 to $35,000. Most of the patients find it difficult to afford these procedures, especially when there are chances of re-occurrence.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Is Beta Thalassemia Treatable?

Is Beta Thalassemia Treatable?
Is Beta Thalassemia Treatable?

Let us first try to understand, what is Beta Thalassemia?

Beta Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. It is characterized by reduced or defective production of beta-chains in hemoglobin (a component of blood). As a result of which, the patient may experience severe anemia or can remain clinically asymptomatic. Globally, an incidence of beta thalassemia is estimated to be around 100,000.  Since it is a genetic disorder, the severity of the disease depends upon the extent of gene mutation.

Now the next thing we should know is what are the symptoms. These range from mild to moderate anemia to severe organ related complication. A beta thalassaemic patient chronically suffers from symptoms such as low hemoglobin levels, jaundice (pale appearance or yellow color of the skin), irritability, slow growth, dark urine, deformities of the facial bones and a swollen abdomen. The appearance of these symptoms in a child often alarms the physician about the condition who then orders further tests.

One should know that there is the difference between a disease being curable and a disease being treatable. For example, a throat infection, take some antibiotics and you are good to go. But some diseases like Hepatitis B are incurable.

Same is the case for beta thalassemia. As far as the cure is concerned, bone marrow transplant has been tried but hasn’t shown promising results due to a number of side effects. But yes, “Treatment of Beta Thalassemia” is there. This has helped to increase the lifespan of thalassaemic patients without any complications. Nowadays, many major beta-thalassemia patients are leading a normal healthy life thanks to the development of new therapeutic measures.

Treatment of Beta Thalassemia:

Treatment major involves regular blood transfusions to keep the symptoms of anemia at bay. Jaundice and paleness still persist but the body now has blood to perform regular functions. In order to reduce the accumulation of iron in the body (due to the breakdown of RBCs and Haemoglobin molecules), the patient is given Iron Chelators. The iron chelation therapy basically consists of certain molecules which bind with the free iron getting accumulated in the liver and other important organs and facilitates its removal via the urine. Thus, like earlier times patients suffering from beta-thalassemia do not undergo organ failure from an accumulation of excessive iron in the body. Beta thalassaemic treatment also involves the daily folic acid supplements, regular check-ups for heart and liver (Cardiac function tests and Liver Function tests). Some patients may require certain surgical procedures such as removal of the spleen (splenectomy) because it gets enlarged to hoarding of dead RBCs. Also, in some cases, gallbladder removal may also need to be done.

Beta thalassemia, nowadays, is considered very much like other chronic disorders such as Diabetes or Hypertension which can be managed by life-long therapy. They lead normal lives, study, get jobs and get married. But as it is applicable to all of us, genetic counseling is a must before marrying and having kids. A person suffering from beta-thalassemia marrying a person with the gene have a 100% chance of passing on the gene to their child. While a person being treated for beta thalassemia major can also transfer the condition to his/her offspring even if the partner doesn’t have the gene.

Treatment of Beta Thalassemia is extensively available in India:

All these treatment options are available with us. We have a dedicated Transfusion Medicine department with excellent doctors that provide round the clock care and treatment to the patients. With the advent of high-technology blood banks and storage facilities risks related to blood have reduced as compared to earlier times. Proper matching of the antibodies is done before starting the treatment for beta thalassemia.

Some other risks associated with the blood transfusion are fever, chills, iron overload, allergic reactions, dizziness, and shortness of breath. But with us, you have got all of this sorted. We keep all of this in mind and our staff is well-trained to handle such complications. We prefer to inform the patient about all the pros and cons of the therapy before starting the treatment of beta thalassemia. Patients and their attendants know what to expect and what is being done.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Is there a cure for Sickle Cell Disease?

Is there a cure for Sickle Cell Disease?
Is there a cure for Sickle Cell Disease?

What do we actually mean by the Sickle Cell Disease?

Sickle cell disease! Sounds familiar? Yes, it is a common chronic blood disorder which generally shows anemia-like symptoms in the affected population. Sickle-cell disease is a rare disorder in India with less than 1 million cases per year. But it is a fairly common condition in African and Mediterranean population.

Basically, it is an inherited blood disorder in which the shape of RBCs is characteristically “sickle-shaped” or “crescent-shaped” instead of its normal biconcave shape. Now, let us understand how is this change in shape affects the patient suffering from it. Since the main function of an RBC is to carry oxygen to all organs of the body, a change in the shape of a red blood cell drastically affects its oxygen-carrying capacity.

The life expectancy of a person suffering from the sickle cell disease is nearly 40-47 years as per certain studies. This is not a definite number as it can increase or decrease depending upon the quality of care a patient receives.

Why is the Sickle cell Disease Problematic?

The sickle-shaped cells cause many problems for the individual. Firstly, the cells are not flexible as a result of which they burst apart more often than usual. This reduces the lifespan of the RBCs to 10-12 days from 90-120 days. Thus, there is a discontinuity in the rate of production of new cells and destruction of the old ones. Also, the sickle-shaped cells can stick to the blood vessels causing an obstruction to the blood flow. The lack of oxygen to certain vital organs can cause sudden severe pain and ischaemic crisis.

What are its Symptoms?

Which leads us to the symptoms of the Sickle Cell disease. The symptoms of the sickle cell disease vary from mild to severe anemia in the patients carrying the sickle cell gene. The patient can just be a carrier of the trait with no apparent clinical symptoms or can be suffering from the severe form where the patient receives the sickle cell trait from both the parents. Some of the common symptoms of sickle cell disease are fatigue and tiredness, pain, or infections. Painful swelling can usually be seen in the hands and limbs of the affected patients. Presence of jaundice or “yellowish-discoloration” of the skin and in eyes (“Icterus”) is also observed.

Are there any complications associated with the Sickle Cell disease?
There might also occur a number of complications in sickle cell disease patients. The children suffering from sickle cell disease may have delayed growth and are generally shorter but usually, regain their height by adulthood. Seizures, strokes, or even coma can result from sickle cell disease. Blindness and skin problems may occur if the vessels of these respective organs are blocked. Gallstones are other sets of problems which are not related to the blockage of arteries but due to the accumulation of pigment- bilirubin which is the result of the constant breakdown of red blood cells.

The diagnosis of the sickle cell disease is mostly done as per the presented symptoms by the patients. Also, the doctor may prescribe certain diagnostic tests just to be sure. These could be blood tests (blood counts can reveal abnormal Hb levels) and “Hb electrophoresis” which determines the type of hemoglobin in the blood.

Is it preventable?

The Sickle Cell disease can be prevented with early diagnosis. Genetic counseling of the parents is a necessary step. It informs the parents about their genetic make-up and the possibility of transmission of the disease to their offspring. The new intra-natal diagnostic techniques even allow detection of the occurrence of sickle cell disease in the child before it is born. This is important as it becomes easier for the doctor to manage the sickle cell disease from early on.  

How can it be treated? Is it curable?

As far as the cure for sickle cell disease is concerned, a bone marrow transplant is the only possibility. But it poses severe risks and is very vulnerable to failure and rejection. This treatment option is not indicated for severe cases of the sickle cell disease. For patients with a mild form of the disease, the bone marrow transplant can still be considered because it’s less risky and complicated for them.

Otherwise, the physician generally manages the disease symptomatically. They generally prefer treating the complications occurring in the individual such as the artery disease or the pain crisis or jaundice and anemia.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

What diseases can be cured with Stem Cell Transplant?

What diseases can be cured with Stem Cell Transplant?
What diseases can be cured with Stem Cell Transplant?

What is a Stem Cell Transplant?

There are many diseases which are nowadays being cured by stem cells. But what actually are “stem cells”? These are basically the precursor cells which mature into different types of blood cells, namely, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

There is also another term – “bone marrow transplant”. there are two main sources of obtaining stem cells in adults. These are bone marrow and peripheral blood. When these cells are obtained from the bone marrow, we call it a bone marrow transplant. When the cells are taken from the circulating blood, the procedure is known as the “hematopoietic stem cell transplant”.

How does a Stem Cell Transplant cure a disease?

In this procedure, the patient receives healthy blood-forming cells to replace the defective ones. The patient’s stem cells can become defective or non-functional either due to a disease or radiation.

The newly inserted cells perform the function of duplication as well as growth and development of the blood cells. This helps in compensating for any decrease and loss of these cells due to any reason. As a result, the body can return back to its normal state.

How are the Cells obtained?

As we have seen, when we say Haematopoietic Stem cell Transplant, we mean the stem cells which are obtained from the peripheral blood. Weeks before the procedure, the patient is given various “growth factors” to stimulate the production of these blood-forming cells in bone marrow and move into circulation faster.

To extract the cells, an intravenous or IV tube is inserted in the donor’s arm. It is attached to a machine which performs the function of separating the stem cells from the blood and then collecting it. The rest of the blood is then sent back into the body via the same IV. The process may take a few hours and sometimes more than one sitting.

What are different types of Stem Cell Transplants?

Depending upon the source of stem cells, we can obtain the cells based upon who gives them. Mainly, it of three types i.e. allogenic stem cell transplant, autologous stem cell transplant, and syngeneic transplants.

An “Autologous transplant” means that the cells are used from the patient’s own blood. In some cases, the stem cells are collected for two transplants. When a patient has to be given high dose Chemotherapy, the second dose of the cells is transplanted usually 6 weeks after the first.

In an “Allogenic Transplant”, the cells are obtained from a donor after proper matching. The donor may or may not be related to the patient.

Then comes the “Syngeneic transplant”. The procedure obtains the cells from an identical twin. An identical twin has the same set of antigens and there are minimal chances of rejection.

What needs to be kept in mind for a Stem Cell Transplant?

Stem cell transplant is not a regular day-to-day procedure. It needs to be meticulously planned by a specialized team consisting of hematologists, general physicians, oncologists, immunologists etc. Along with all this, a careful patient examination is necessary. The patient should be able to handle the treatment. Some of the commonly considered patient factors are age (the younger the better because of better recovery); patient’s overall health and allied medical conditions; the, of course, the type, severity, prognosis, and spread of cancer. Also, the type of chemotherapy and the chances of cancer for remission or relapse also affect the treatment plan.

What are the possible Risks of Stem Cell Transplant?

The problems range from common nausea and vomiting to the more severe “Graft vs Host Disease (GVD)”. Some of the usual side effects include nausea/vomiting; infections; mucositis and pneumonitis. Patients may also need transfusions due to continuous bleeding before the effects of transplanted cells kick in.

Meticulous precautions should be taken post-operatively to prevent infections. We cannot predict how drained out the patient is after the chemotherapies after which he/she receives the transplant. Proper diet and necessary infection control measures need to be taken. The patients are also given precautionary antibiotics to prevent the development of infections.

Now we can address the major problem:

Graft vs Host Disease. It happens in allogenic transplant cases where the patient rejects the donor cells after the transplant. It is an emergent and critical complication which needs to addressed immediately. It can either be acute or chronic. Acute GVD shows its signs within 10-90 days of the stem cell transplant. While a chronic GVD later and lasts for a long time. In order to prevent such conditions, doctors prescribe immunosuppressants to lower down the chances of rejections.  

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Bone Marrow test cost in India

Bone Marrow test cost in India
Bone Marrow test cost in India

Bone Marrow is the soft gelatinous tissue found inside the bones of the human body. It is mainly responsible for the production and maturation of blood-forming stem cells in the body. These mature stem cells are then released into the peripheral bloodstream where they differentiate into the three types of blood cells, namely, the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and the platelets.

What is a Bone Marrow Test?

The bone marrow test or biopsy is a specialized diagnostic procedure in which a certain portion of the marrow tissue is obtained and is then tested under the microscope. It is a fairly regular procedure which is done to detect various blood-related disorders. These could be blood cancers (leukemia and lymphoma), anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Neutropenia etc.

It basically gives a better idea of what is going on inside the body when the doctors are unable to find the answers with other specialized tests.

How often is this procedure done?

Due to its positive results, the test is done to know the exact cause of certain blood disorders. Also, it harbors Stem Cells. Stem cells are pluripotent cells which means that they can basically turn into any type of cells under the influence of certain growth factors.

The procedure is done by all the doctors, nurses and other health care professionals in the laboratories. The test consists of two procedures i.e. the bone marrow aspiration and the bone marrow biopsy.

In India, all the leading private hospitals, government hospitals and most of the well-equipped laboratories offer this test. It is a fairly safe and regular procedure. Doctors do it all the time.

How much does the test cost?

India is becoming one of the leading medical hubs in the world. Globally, it is earning respect in terms of medical services and the qualified medical staff. The doctors here are hardworking and well trained to perform all kinds of procedures.

In India, the cost of the bone marrow test depends upon various factors. The bone marrow test cost in India varies directly upon the type of facility (public or private), the city or patient’s location, and also the availability of the test.

The bone marrow test cost ranges from Rs. 500-5000 in India. This is obviously the average cost of the test.  The bone marrow test cost can increase in case of any unforeseen complication that might occur.

As per the regular privately purchased health insurance, usually, the bone marrow test cost is included in the coverage. The cost of the test is usually reimbursed to the patient. In India, the bone marrow test cost is sometimes subsidized by the government for those patients who cannot pay the amount. There are many hospitals which come under this subsidized low-cost bone marrow test in the country.

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.

Is Bone Marrow Cancer curable? What are the treatments?

Is bone marrow cancer curable? What are the treatments?
Is bone marrow cancer curable? What are the treatments?

What is a Cancer?

Cancer, as we know, is the abnormal proliferation of certain cells of the body which goes out of control. Cancer can develop practically in all parts of the body.

There are two types of cancerous lesions that are found in the human body.

These are:

Benign Cancer: It is the less dangerous one (unless it is impinging on surrounding tissues) as it doesn’t spread to other organs.

Malignant Cancer: It is the problematic one as it can rapidly spread to other tissues and can even cause a variety of other problems.

What is Bone Marrow Cancer?

Bone Marrow is the soft gelatinous substance present inside the bones. It is kind of like the manufacturing unit for production of blood cells in the body. It consists of many types of precursor blood cells, stem cells, mature cells etc.

It is actually the abnormal multiplication of any of these cells inside the bone marrow. Since the bone marrow has a direct connection with the blood supply, it can easily spread to other parts of the body.

What are the symptoms of Bone Marrow Cancer?

Any cancer for that matter does not have serious direct consequences. They usually create a problem with normal functioning of the body. in bone marrow cancer, the production of normal blood cells is hampered, or there is drastic increase in one type of the cell. As a result, the number and functioning of other cells are affected.

The following are the symptoms associated with it:

  • Anemia
  • Weight loss
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Increase the frequency of infections
  • Immune-compromised state
  • Body pain
  • Bone weakness and frequent fractures
  • Kidney damage

What are the types of Bone Marrow Cancer?

The type of bone marrow cancer depends upon the type of the cell involved.

The types of cells are:

  • The red blood cells
  • The Platelets
  • The White blood cells which include lymphocytes, plasma cells, leukocytes etc.

Let us find out about some of the common types of bone marrow cancer.

Multiple Myeloma:
It is characterized by the excessive proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasma cells play a key role in forming antibodies against the various types of infections.

Leukemia:
This is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of white blood cells. This increase in the number of cells can be rapid (acute- ALL, AML) or slow-growing (chronic- CML, CLL).

Lymphoma:
This is the cancer of the lymphatic system. These can occur in many parts of the body.

This is of further two types: Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

How is Bone Marrow Cancer diagnosed?

A doctor can make a number of diagnoses based on the symptoms that patients present with. The doctor can order various tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs), and certain imaging tests. Blood tests help to evaluate the blood counts, kidney function, and electrolyte levels. The imaging tests such as the MRI scan, CT scan or PET scan helps the doctor to evaluate the spread of the bone marrow cancer.

Another important technique to determine the type, severity and the spread of bone marrow cancer is the bone marrow biopsy. It is a confirmatory test for all the types of bone marrow cancers and blood disorders. The aspirated bone marrow is looked by a specialist under a microscope to get a clear picture of what is going on and plan treatment accordingly.

How is Bone Marrow Cancer treated?

The treatment of this cancer is very customizable according to each specific cancer. After the doctor determines the type, spread and the grade of cancer, an oncologist can design a specific course of treatment for a patient.

The two most common mode of treatment is Radiation therapy and Chemotherapy.

These can be used alone or along with each other as a part of adjuvant therapy. Both of these treatments are aimed at killing the cancer cells or stopping them from multiplying. The drugs may have targeted action on some kind of cancer cells.

For example, Imatinib (Gleevec) is a drug which is effective mainly for CML (a type of bone marrow cancer)

Patients generally start to lack the number of healthy blood cells required to perform normal day to body functions either due to bone marrow cancer treatment or due to the disease itself.

In such patients, physicians recommend a bone marrow transplant. it is a highly specialized procedure in which the healthy bone marrow is transferred into the deceased individual to take over the normal functions.

It is of three types: Allogenic, Autologous, and Syngeneic. 

 

About BloodCancerCure:

BloodCancerCure is the world’s first such organization working 24*7 on helping blood cancer patients. BloodCancerCure works for patients across the world by providing the lowest cost for bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and Bone marrow test. You can contact at +91-8448533753 to talk to our experts at BloodCancerCure for BMT treatment in India.